This article proposes a new holistic framework for tackling supply-side proliferation, based on a mix of punishments, incentives, and new normative standards (PIN) that could be taken by industry. After outlining a brief history of illicit nuclear trade, highlighting the increasingly sophisticated strategies adopted by proliferators, we explore in detail the PIN framework. We argue that to meet this challenge, industry must adopt behavior that goes beyond compliance with current regulations, particularly in the area of due diligence and information sharing.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.