Masters Theses


Bobby Parkins

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Animal Husbandry

Major Professor

Eric W. Swanson

Committee Members

C. E. Wylie, R. L. Murphree


For many years workers have been seeking to develop milk replacers that are efficient, economical, and practical for farm use. Many have been failures because the young calf does not have the ability to utilize fibrous or starchy ingredients found in many of the vegetable milk replacers. Other workers have been conducting experimental studies on hand feeding methods, limited milk feeding, methods of housing, and various other aspects of more efficient calf-raising methods. The importance of feeding minimum amounts of marketable whole milk and getting the calf to eat larger amounts of hay and grain at an early age has been emphasized in recent investigations.

This study, consisting of three different experiments, was conducted to determine the effects of feeding various amounts of solids in reconstituted skim milk upon the growth, efficiency, and well being of the calf. By increasing the milk solids in low-fat milk replacers, it is possible to enrich them. Thus, it is important to know what effect milks of different solids content have on the calf. Experiment II was conducted to study the comparative effect of feeding calves the same amount of milk solids but in varying volumes of reconstituted milk. This experiment was needed to show whether volume of milk alone, with the same solids, would influence the appetite for hay and grain, growth, gastrointestinal disorders, and well being of the calf in a significant manner. Experiment III was conducted to compare an extracted-fat milk replacement with one supplemented with 1% fat, and inside pens versus outside pens. The results of these studies should contribute some information on more efficient and economical calf-raising methods.

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