Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Animal Husbandry

Major Professor

W.R. Backus

Committee Members

G.M. Merriman, C.C. Chamberlain


One Hereford-Angus cross, 8 Hereford and 27 Angus bulls from the University of Tennessee-Alcoa Farm were used in this study. Bulls were divided into two weight groups and randomly allotted within breed to one of three feeding regimes. Treatment I was 120 days of full feed of com silage plus 6 pounds of concentrate 1 (5 parts cracked number 2 shelled corn and 1 part cottonseed meal) per head per day, then a full feed of concentrate 2 (8 parts cracked number 2 shelled corn and 1 part cotton seed meal) plus 10 pounds of corn silage per head per day. Treatment II's ration was the same as Treatment I but consisted of 60 days full feed of corn silage followed by a full feed of concentrate 2 plus 10 pounds of corn silage per head per day. Treatment III consisted of a full feed of concentrate 2 plus 10 pounds of silage per head per day for the entire feeding period.

Live weight and ultrasonic fat estimates were recorded initially and at two subsequent 28-day intervals, then at 14-day intervals until a final subcutaneous fat thickness estimate of 10 mm was attained or 515 days of age, or June 15, 1971.

Initially, there were no significant differences in weight, fat or animal age between treatments. After 60 days on test. Treatment XII was significantly (F .05) heavier and fatter than either. Treatments I or II, which were similar. There was a direct relationship between days on test and final weight (r = .57) . At the end of the feeding period bulls on Treatment III were significantly (P < .05) fatter, lighter and finished sooner than either Treatment I or II. There was no significant difference between overall average daily gain among treatments.

The average feed costs per 100 pound of live weight gains were $19.06, $18.12 and $15.64 for Treatment III, II and I, respectively. These costs are also proportional to cost per 100 pound carcass gains since dressing percents were similar for all treatments.

Treatment significantly (P < .05) affected carcass fatness but did not affect the actual percent of trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin, rib and chuck. Average carcass grades were Low Choice for Treatments II and III and High Good for Treatment I when graded on a steer basis.

Warner-Braztler shear data from broiled loin steaks were similar for each treatment. Most consumers (92.3 percent) indicated they would purchase the same quality beef again. Flavor was very acceptable with the following results: 'Very Good', 89.2 percent; 'Good', 71.7 percent; 'Fair', 3.1 percent. No responses reported the 'bull beef to have a poor flavor. Consumers, overall, rated 93.3 percent of the roasts and steaks produced from the young bulls on this study as 'tender'.

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