To identify the incidence and correlates of physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women at risk for pregnancy, a cross-sectional examination was conducted within a longitudinal study of reproductive decision making. Participants consisted of 275 HIVinfected women 17 to 49 years of age (mean = 30.1 years).Women were predominantly African American (87%) and single (82%), with annual incomes of $10,000 or less (66%). Overall, 68% of the women reported experiencing lifetime physical and/or sexual violence. Before becoming HIV infected, 65% of the women reported having been physically or sexually abused. After HIV diagnosis, 33% of the women reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse. Women reporting greater violence were more likely to disclose their HIV-seropositive status to their sex partner. Using logistic regression, greater intent to get pregnant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.933), decreased present life satisfaction (OR = 1.048), having three or more children (OR = 0.474), and history of drug use (OR = 0.794) significantly distinguished between women who reported physical and/or sexual violence and those who did not.
Sowell, R. L., Phillips, K. D., Seals, B., Murdaugh, C., & Rush, C. (2002). Incidence and correlates of violence among HIV-infected women at risk for pregnancy in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 13(2), 46-58.