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Within-host density of the symbiont-infections. Symbionts have the capacity to establish within the host at a higher density to maintain a high transmission fidelity and sometimes higher density could mean stronger protection. Density matters because it influences the costs and benefits of symbiosis. Here, I showed that the density of symbionts varies in both single and multiple co-infection with symbionts that are found in association within pea-aphids. I compared data obtained from field-collected samples with data obtained under an experimentally controlled setting to determine the variation in symbiont density.

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