The pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens has caused recurrent brown tide blooms along the northeast coast of the United States since the mid-1980's, and more recently spread to other regions of the globe. These blooms, due to the high cell densities, are associated with severe light attenuation that destroys the sea grass beds which provide the basis for many fisheries. Data collected by transmission electron microscopy, PCR, and metatranscriptomic studies of the blooms, support the hypothesis that large dsDNA viruses play a role in bloom dynamics. While a large (~140 nm) icosahedral virus, with a 371 kbp genome, was first isolated more than a decade ago, the constraints imposed by environmental parameters on bloom infection dynamics by Aureococcus anophagefferens Virus, (AaV) remain unknown. To investigate the role light plays in infection by this virus, we acclimated A. anophagefferens to light intensities of 30 (low), 60 (medium) or 90 μmol photons m-2 s-1 (high) and infected cultures at these irradiance levels. Moreover, we completed light shift experiments where acclimated cultures were exposed to even lower light intensities (0, 5, and 15 μmol photons m-2 s-1) consistent with irradiance found during the peak of the bloom when cell concentrations are highest. The abundance of viruses produced per lytic event (burst size) was lower in the low irradiance acclimated cultures compared to the medium and high acclimated cultures. Transferring infected cultures to more-limiting light availabilities further decreased burst size and increased the length of time it took for cultures to lyse, regardless of acclimation irradiance level. A hypothetical mechanism for the reduced efficiency of the infection cycle in low light due to ribosome biogenesis was predicted from pre-existing transcriptomes. Overall, these studies provide a framework for understanding light effects on infection dynamics over the course of the summer months when A. anophagefferens blooms occur.
Gann, Eric R.; Gainer, P. Jackson; and Wilhelm, Steven W., "Influence of light on the infection of Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP 1984 by a “giant virus”" (2020). Microbiology Publications and Other Works.