Date of Award
Master of Science
Hollie A. Raynor
Betsy Haughton, Katie Kavanagh
Underreporting in dietary assessment has been linked to dietary restraint (DR) and social desirability (SD). Thus, this study investigated accuracy of reporting energy intake (EI) of a laboratory meal during a 24-hour dietary recall (24HR) in 38 healthy, college-aged (20.3 +/- 1.7 years), normal-weight women (22.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), categorized as high or low in DR and SD.
Participants consumed a meal (sandwich wrap, chips, fruit, and ice cream) and completed a telephone 24HR. Accuracy of reported intake = (((reported intake - measured intake)/measured intake) x 100) [positive numbers = overreporting].
Overreporting of EI was found in all groups (meal accuracy rate = 43.1 +/- 49.9%). An interaction of SD x individual foods (p < 0.05) occurred. SD-High as compared to SD-Low more accurately reported EI of chips (19.8 +/- 56.2% vs. 117.1 +/- 141.3%, p < 0.05) and ice cream (17.2 +/- 78.2% vs. 71.6 +/- 82.7%, p < 0.05). An effect of SD occurred, where SD-High as compared to SD-Low more accurately reported meal EI (29.8 +/- 48.2% vs. 58.0 +/- 48.8%, p < 0.05). For measured meal EI, an effect of DR occurred where DR-High consumed less than DR-Low (437 +/- 169 kcals vs. 559 +/- 207 kcals, p < 0.05). An interaction of DR x food type (p < 0.05) occurred where DR-High as compared to DR-Low consumed less sandwich wrap (156 +/- 63 kcals vs. 210 +/- 76 kcals, p < 0.05) and ice cream (126 +/-73 kcals vs. 190 +/- 106 kcals, p < 0.05). For reported meal EI, an effect of DR occurred where DR-High reported consuming less than DR-Low (561 +/- 200 kcals vs. 818 +/- 362 kcals, p < 0.05). An interaction of DR x individual foods (p < 0.05) occurred where DR-High reported consuming less ice cream than DR-Low (145 +/- 91 kcals vs. 302 +/- 235 kcals, p < 0.05).
Overreporting EI from a laboratory meal was prevalent. However, those high in SD were more accurate in reporting intake, particularly of high-fat foods. Future research is needed to investigate factors that contribute to overreporting.
Schoch, Ashlee Hirt, "The Influence of Dietary Restraint, Social Desirability, and Food Type on Accuracy of Reported Dietary Intake. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2010.