Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Food Science and Technology
Marjorie P. Penfield
Clark Brekke, Betsy Haughton, Lana Zivanovic
For part 1 of a 2-part study, a randomized balanced incomplete design, blocked on day, was used to test the effects of 4 flours at 5.8, 7.5, 8.8, and 10.4% protein, 3 fat replacers (Betatrim, Stardri, and Simplesse) at 0, 35, 55, 75% fat reduction, and 3 sugar replacers (Sucralose, Isomalt, and Maltitol) at 0, 45, and 65% sugar reduction on cookie quality. Cookie spread (width/thickness) and hardness (g) were measured. Full-fat and 35 and 55% reduced-fat cookie spread decreased as flour protein increased (p = 0.0102) as did flour hydration properties. Within each flour, cookies made with Betatrim at 55 and 75% were smaller than full-fat cookies; at similar fat levels, Stardri produced cookies larger than full-fat cookies. For all fat replacers, 75% reduced-fat cookies with 5.8% protein flour were larger than their respective 35% reduced-fat/10.4% protein flour cookies. Full-fat and 35% reduced-fat cookies were softer as flour protein increased from 7.5 to 10.4% (p = 0.0053). For each flour, Stardri fat replacement produced harder cookies than all reduced-fat cookies. For Part 2, a randomized incomplete design, blocked on day and panelist, was used to test 30 optimal wire-cut cookie formulas selected from Part 1. A trained panel (n=12) rated cookies made with the low-protein flour/full-fat and low-protein flour/Simplesse darker than all other treatments (p = 0.0045); Isomalt with any fat/fat replacer system produced cookies similar in baked color to control cookies (p = 0.0075). Full-fat/low-protein flour (p = 0.0007) and full-fat/full-sugar (p = 0.0025) were the driest cookies. Full-fat/full-sugar cookies and Stardri cookies with any sugar/sugar replacer system were harder than all other treatments (p = 0.0251). Cookies made with the low-protein flour had larger crumb cell size (p < 0.0001), were more brittle (p = 0.0005), had more intense browned flavor (p = 0.0150), and were sweeter (p = 0.0003) than cookies made with the higher protein flours. Bakers must recognize that low-protein flours can be used to optimize reduced fat cookie spread, texture, appearance, and flavor. Isomalt and Maltitol are also two sugar replacers that formulators can use in reduced-fat cookies that will produce cookie textures similar to full-fat/full-sugar versions.
Johnson, Kimberly A., "Flour protein content and fat and sugar replacers : effects on wire-cut cookie spread and texture and sensory perception of cookie attributes. " PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2001.