Doctoral Dissertations

Orcid ID

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

Joseph R. Miles

Committee Members

Donna Braquet, Gina Owens, Kirsten Gonzalez


The effects of gendered power dynamics between men and women during sexual encounters are well documented in the literature. Specifically, internalizing sexist beliefs about masculine dominance and feminine submission is related to worse sexual health outcomes. Less is known, however, about gendered power dynamics between men having sex. Those who engage in anal sex as the receptive partner (i.e., bottom) are feminized and shamed in various cultures, viewed as submissive, and may have internalized sexist beliefs and, thus, sexual role prejudice. Consequently, bottoms may feel less sexual autonomy, which influences their condom use self-efficacy. This is important given that bottoms are at higher risk of seroconverting and becoming HIV positive and acquiring other sexual transmitted infections. We examine the relationship between ambivalent sexism (ASI) and condom use self-efficacy (CUSE) through sexual role prejudice (SRP), sexual role script adherence (SRSA), and sexual non-autonomy (SNA) in serial mediation. There were significant indirect effects of ASI on CUSE through SRP and SNA. Specifically, ASI was positively associated with SRP, which was positively associated with SNA, which was negatively associated with CUSE amongst men who engage in receptive anal sex with other men. Cross-sectional data results suggest that CUSE amongst bottoms may be influenced by sexist gender role stereotypes that relate to internalized power dynamics of submissiveness in a feminized sexual role.

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