Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Human Ecology

Major Professor

Mary Jo Hitchcock

Committee Members

Betty L Beach, Ada Marie Campbell, William J. Snyder


(Conclusions) The energy required along the continuum of receiving, storage, preparation, holding, and service in the conventional foodservice system varied. The hot food preparation equipment requiring natural gas was the most energy intensive equipment in the foodservice facility as shown in Table 3, p. 41. The rotary oven was the single most energy intensive equipment in this study. Of the electrical equipment, the electric steam table was the most energy intensive. The equipment operated by steam was the least energy intensive. It appears that steam operated equipment should be used as much as is possible. Electrical equipment appeared to be less energy intensive. However, consideration must be given to the additional energy required to produce each kilowatt hour due to the inefficient conversion of traditional energy resources to electricity within the original generating system and then the inefficient transfer of electricity from the original generating system to the foodservice system.

Results from this study indicate the quantity of product prepared is a significant influence upon the amount of energy consumed in the convection oven and deep-fat fryer as shown in Table 4, p. 42. The thermostat setting was a significant influence on the energy consumed in convection, rotary, and warming ovens.

Decisions concerning the use of equipment made by the food preparation personnel were a significant influence upon the amount of energy required to prepare a product in the convection oven, rotary oven, and deep-fat fryer. The amount of energy required to prepare meatloaf at the same thermostat setting for the same time period was greater in the rotary oven than in the convection oven. An observation was made that traffic in and out of the coolers and freezers may have caused a noticeable difference in the mean hourly energy consumption rates.

The energy flow model allowed the energy consumption for each product to be followed as the product passed along the continuum from receiving through service in all four foodservice systems. This model provided the flexibility to analyze the energy consumption required to prepare products in each of the four foodservice systems, or only one system with more than one method of preparing products for service. Data required to use this model for types of systems other than a conventional system would include the mass of the product, type of equipment required, type and quantity of energy resources needed, and preparation method.

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