Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education

Major Professor

Melinda M. Gibbons

Committee Members

David Cihak, Shawn Spurgeon, Gary Skolits


Online supervision, or cyber supervision, is an emerging field in counselor education, however, little is known about the differences of the relationship of FtF and cyber supervision. The purpose of this dissertation study was to examine counseling supervisees perceptions of satisfaction with the supervisory relationship and how those perceptions compared for supervisees in face-to-face (FtF) and online, or cyber, supervisees. In doing this, the variables that relate and/or predict satisfaction were studied. These variables were those from the Supervisory Styles Inventory (SSI) and the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory (SWAI). The dependent variable of satisfaction came from the Supervisory Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ). Correlation analyses indicated that all variables were highly correlated with each other and to satisfaction with supervision. Two-tailed t-tests were then conducted for each independent variable and the dependent variable along with comparison by format of supervision (i.e., cyber or FtF). Results indicated that cyber supervisees reported higher satisfaction ratings than their FtF counterparts. Lastly, a series stepwise regression analyses indicated that the independent variables of rapport, interpersonally sensitive, and attractiveness were predictors of satisfaction for FtF supervisees, while the independent variable of interpersonally sensitive was the only predictor of satisfaction for cyber supervisees. Discussion of findings, implications for counselor educators and supervisors, and future research were discussed.

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