Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
R. Steve McCallum
Sherry Bell, Chris H. Skinner, Richard Saudargas
In order to investigate the influence of a with-in child variable (e.g., cognitive processes) and an external variable (e.g., particular intervention) on the acquisition of math fluency, or automaticity, a Detect, Prompt, Repair (DPR) treatment procedure was employed (external variable) for students with varying processing speed scores (internal variable). Forty-five students were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (DPR math intervention) or the control group (reading intervention) according to a true experimental design. After covarying pre-test scores, the DPR treatment produced a significantly higher (p = .016) adjusted mean math scores (M = 47.53, SD = 3.26) for the intervention group when compared to the control group (M = 33.31, SD = 4.39). To determine the possible effects of processing speed on gain scores the math group members were divided (using a median split) into relatively fast processors and slow processors. Although a repeated measure ANOVA indicated no processing speed and treatment interaction effect (p = .06), a minimally strong correlation between processing speed and math fluency was found (r = .19, p = .33). And, when each group was split into Fast, Average, and Slow processors, the DPR procedure produced gains in all three subgroups. Conversely, the control group did not show gains in math fluency, regardless of cognitive ability.
Axtell, Philip K., "Developing Math Automaticity Using a Classwide Fluency Building Procedure for Students with Varying Processing Speeds. " PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2006.