Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education

Major Professor

Jeannine Studer

Committee Members

Blanche O'Bannon, Gary Skolits, Shawn Spurgeon


The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was to compare school counselors’ and principals’ perceptions of the frequency with which school counselors perform activities that align with the ASCA National Model (ASCA, 2005) and those activities that do not, as measured by the School Counselor Activity Rating Scale (SCARS) (Scarborough, 2005). Results indicate that the school counselors and principals that participated in the study agreed that school counselors are spending most of their time engaged in activities that align with the ASCA National Model (ASCA, 2005). Significant differences (p < .05) appeared on 10 items in which five were related to counseling activities, primarily as they relate to small group counseling. Principals indicated their school counselors were conducting small group activities related to academic and substance abuse issues more frequently than the school counselors indicated. Other areas that showed significant differences (p < .05) between school counselors’ and principals’ responses included conducting classroom guidance lessons on substance abuse issues, consulting with school staff regarding students’ behavior, and such coordination activities as professional development and school counseling advisory teams. School counselors indicated they engaged in the non-counseling activity of substituting/covering classes more frequently than principals indicated (p = .032). Implications for school counselors, principals, and counselor education and education administration faculty are discussed.

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