Five species of Hydnum have been generally recognized from eastern North America based on morphological recognition: H. albidum, H. albomagnum, H. repandum and varieties, H. rufescens, and H.umbilicatum. Other unique North American species, such as H. caespitosum and H. washingtonianum, are either illegitimately named or considered synonymous with European taxa. Here, seventeen phylogenetic species of Hydnum are detected from eastern North America based on a molecular phylogenetic survey of ITS sequences from herbarium collections and GenBank data, including environmental sequences. Based on current distribution results, sixteen of these species appear endemic to North America. Of these, six species are described as new: H. alboaurantiacum, H. cuspidatum, H. ferruginescens, H. subconnatum, H. subtilior, and H. vagabundum. Geographic range extensions and taxonomic notes are provided for five additional species recently described as new from eastern North America. A new name, H. geminum, is proposed for H.caespitosum Banning ex Peck, non Valenti. Overall, species of Hydnum are best recognized by a combination of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Taxonomic descriptions are provided for seventeen species, including epitype designations for H. albidum, H. albomagnum, and H. umbilicatum, taxa described more than 100 years ago, and molecular annotation of the isotype of H. washingtonianum. Photographs and a key to eastern North American Hydnum species are presented.
Swenie RA, Baroni TJ, *Matheny PB (2018) Six new species and reports of Hydnum (Cantharellales) from eastern North America. MycoKeys 42: 35-72. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.42.27369