Date of Award

12-2012

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Major

Food Science and Technology

Major Professor

F. Ann Draughon

Committee Members

P. Michael Davidson, Sevetlana Zivanovic, Stephen P. Oliver

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine presence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter on diverse farm types. Cloacal fecal samples from poultry (broilers, layers, and turkey breeders), and fecal rectal samples from non-poultry animals (farrowing sows, finisher pigs, and lactating dairy cows) were tested for Campylobacter using BAM protocols. Agar disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic resistance, and PFGE analysis to determine genetic relatedness of isolates recovered within the different farm types. Campylobacter was detected in 34.8% (range of 6.7 to 62.0%, P < 0.001) of cloacal samples from poultry, in 61.4% (range of 55.0 to 69.0%, P < 0.05), and 26.0% (range of 19.0 to 34.0%, P < 0.05) of rectal samples from pigs, and dairy cows, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 30.2% (range of 0 to 82.4%, P < 0.001) of Campylobacter from poultry, in 54.7% (range of 24.2 to 100%, P < 0.001), and 14.3% (range of 0 to 28.6%, P < 0.05) of Campylobacter from pigs and dairy cows, respectively. Isolates from poultry with resistance against ciprofloxacin (range of 0 to 79.4%, P < 0.001) were detected more often than those with resistance to erythromycin (range of 0 to 8.8%, P < 0.01) or gentamicin (range of 0 to 4.5%, P > 0.05). Isolates from pigs with resistance to erythromycin (range of 20.0 to 100%, P < 0.001) were detected more often than those with resistance to ciprofloxacin (range of 0 to 11.4%, P < 0.05) or gentamicin (2.6%, range of 0 to 3.0%, P > 0.05). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (range of 0 to 7.7%, P < 0.05), erythromycin (range of 0 to 28.6%, P < 0.01), and gentamicin (range of 0 to 18.8%, P < 0.01) varied between the different dairy farms. Genotyping by PFGE showed that Campylobacter strain types recovered from different poultry and non-poultry production types had distinctly different PFGE patterns. In conclusion, marked disparities existed within different poultry and non-poultry production types in terms of Campylobacter presence, antibiotic resistance, and strain types.

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