A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction on 3rd-5th grade deaf and hard of hearing students’ writing and language compared to a business-as-usual condition (N=63). A total of 18 hours of instruction was provided for each of two types of writing—personal narrative (known as recount) and persuasive. Writing samples, collected prior to instruction and after, were scored for writing traits, language accuracy and complexity. Data were analyzed using a two-level, mixed-effects regression. Results show the treatment to be effective for recount and persuasive writing traits, and recount language variables, with effect sizes ranging from 0.46 to 2.01. Treatment effects were also substantial for persuasive writing language outcomes (0.38 to 1.06), although not all were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. The findings suggest the importance of apprenticeship in writing and consideration for the specific language needs of students with hearing loss.
Wolbers, K., Dostal, H., Graham, S., Branum-Martin, L., Kilpatrick, J. & Saulsburry, R. (2018). Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction: An efficacy study in grades 3-5. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 8(1), 99-117. https://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v8n1p99