Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles
This paper discusses the development of two five-item Likert scales that classify juveniles' gender role expectations as highly traditional to nontraditional. One is composed of behavioral expectations that juveniles define as traditionally feminine and the other is composed of expectations they define as traditionally masculine. With a sample of junior and senior high school students, correlational and factor analyses of scale items were conducted to assess the validity of the assumptions of bipolarity and unidimensionality common in theoretical conceptualizations of gender roles. The results suggest that feminine and masculine role expectations are not bipolar opposites and do not form a unidimensional continuum.
Norland, S., James, J. and Shover, N. (1978), Gender Role Expectations of Juveniles. Sociological Quarterly, 19: 545–554. doi: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1978.tb01198.x