Date of Award
Master of Science
James M. Rochelle
T. Vaughn Black, Danny F. Newport, David M. Binkley
The development of a 6-bit 15.625 MHz CMOS two-step analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is presented. The ADC was developed for use in a low dead time, high-performance, sub-nanosecond time-to-digital converter (TDC). The TDC is part of a new custom CMOS application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that will be incorporated in the next generation of front-end electronics for high-performance positron emission tomography imaging. The ADC is based upon a two-step flash architecture that reduces the comparator count by a factor-of-two when compared to a traditional flash ADC architecture and thus a significant reduction in area, power dissipation, and input capacitance of the converter is achieved. The converter contains time-interleaved auto-zeroed CMOS comparators. These comparators utilize offset correction in both the preamplifier and the subsequent regenerative latch stage to guarantee good integral and differential non-linearity performance of the converter over extreme process conditions. Also, digital error correction was employed to overcome most of the major metastability problems inherent in flash converters and to guarantee a completely monotonic transfer function. Corrected comparator offset measurements reveal that the CMOS comparator design maintains a worse case input-referred offset of less than 1 mV at conversion rates up to 8 MHz and less than a 2 mV offset at conversion rates as high as 16 MHz while dissipating less than 2.6 mW. Extensive laboratory measurements indicate that the ADC achieves differential and integral non-linearity performance of less than ±1/2 LSB with a 20 mV/LSB resolution. The ADC dissipates 90 mW from a single 5 V supply and occupies a die area of 1.97 mm x 1.13 mm in 0.8 μm CMOS technology.
Swann, Brian Keith, "Development of a 6-bit 15.625 MHz CMOS two-step flash analog-to-digital converter for a low dead time sub-nanosecond time measurement system. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2000.