Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Elizabeth I. Johnson

Committee Members

Jeremy Kanter, Chris Elledge


This paper examines the relationship between neighborhood adversity, educational opportunities, and externalizing problems using baseline data from the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study (N = 9,334). Participants ranged in age from 9 to 10 years (M = 9.9). There were slightly more children who identified as male (52.7 percent). In the analytic sample, 56.4 percent of the children were racialized as White (N =5640), 16.1 percent as Black (N =1500), and 23 percent as Hispanic/Latinx (N = 2144). Data were analyzed using regression models that included the main and interactive effects of neighborhood educational opportunities and adversity, controlling for family income, material hardship, parent educational level, and the child's gender and age. Results indicate that, for children racialized as Black, the effect of opportunities was greater at lower levels of disadvantage. For children racialized as Hispanic/Latinx and White, other factors such as family resources constitute the main influence on EPs. Overall findings suggest that opportunities matter depending on contexts, such as levels of adversity, opportunities, and the unique experiences of children within their respective communities. The results bear implications for policy-making decisions and intervention and prevention programs centered around neighborhood and educational opportunities.

Available for download on Friday, May 15, 2026

Files over 3MB may be slow to open. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."