Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Food Science and Technology

Major Professor

Sharon L. Melton

Committee Members

H. O. Jaynes, C. C. Melton


L-ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AP) was investigated as a dough strengthener, crumb softener and shortening replacer in commercially produced hamburger buns. Farinograms in which either AP, sodium stearoyl 2-lactylate (SSL) or a commercial surfactant (surfactant A, a mixture of 45% soft monoglycerides, 45% ethoxylated monoglycerides and 10% succinylated monoglycerides) were added to flour at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00% (flour basis) were obtained as a measure of dough strength. Peak time, stability, tolerance index, arrival time, time to breakdown and water absorbance were determined from each farinogram and two replications of each surfactant-concentration combination were completed. SSL measured across concentration had a significantly greater peak time, departure time, stability and time to breakdown than AP or surfactant A. Concentration of SSL and surfactant A significantly affected peak time. Departure time, stability and breakdown time increased linearly as the concentration of SSL increased from 0.25 to 1.00% but were not affected significantly by AP or surfactant A. All three surfactants caused a significant decrease in tolerance index as concentration increased.

Three replications of hamburger buns containing either 0.2500, 0.3125, 0.3750 or 0.4375% ascorbyl palmitate and no shortening and a control bun containing 3% shortening, 0.375% monoglycerides and 0.625% surfactant A were commercially produced at a local bakery. Specific bun volume, crust color, crumb color, crust toughness, compressibility during storage and proximate analysis were measured for each run of buns produced. No significant differences were found between the control bun and the AP bun for specific volume; however, a significant increase in specific bun volume occurred as the concentration of AP increased. The control bun had a redder top crust and lighter, less red crumb color than the AP bun. As the concentration of AP increased, significant effects for top crust lightness and "b" value were found and crumb lightness generally decreased. The control bun had significantly higher percent protein and lipid and significantly lower percent moisture and ash than the AP bun. The AP bun had significantly lower compressibility on day 2 and day 7 than the control bun, but there were no significant differences between the control bun and the AP bun for compressibility on day 0, 1, 3, 4 or 5. No significant differences were found between the buns for staling rate. Consumer ratings for overall acceptability and texture were significantly higher for the control bun. Both buns were rated between "like very much" and "like moderately" for overall acceptability. The control bun was rated just above "moderately soft" for texture and the AP bun was rated just below "moderately soft."

Files over 3MB may be slow to open. For best results, right-click and select "save as..."