Date of Award
Master of Science
Hollie A. Raynor
Dixie L. Thompson, Jay Whelan, Hollie A. Raynor
This investigation examined acute energy compensation and macronutrient intake in habitually active and sedentary, college-aged males, following an exercise session as compared to a resting (control) session, to see if habitually active males compensate intake better to an energy deficit incurred by exercise, than sedentary males.
Participants were males, aged 18-30 years, of a normal percent body fat and body mass index, and exercised < 60 min per week (sedentary) or > 150 min per week (habitually active). Participants came in for two sessions: 1) 45 minutes of resting (control) and then eating an ad libitum meal; and 2) riding a cycle ergometer for 45 minutes (exercise) and then eating an ad libitum meal. Sessions were counterbalanced across participants. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated for the meal and over the remaining part of the day.
Sedentary individuals ate significantly less during the meal in the exercise session (which expended a mean of 453.5 kcals across both groups) as compared to the control session (934.8 + 222.0 kcals vs. 1073.9 + 470.3 kcals, p < 0.03), which demonstrated negative energy compensation (-30.6%). The habitually active group showed no significant difference in energy intake between sessions at the meal (1016.8 + 396.7 kcal [control] vs. 1105.6 + 389.2 kcal [exercise]). While the habitually active group showed no significant difference in intake at the meal, the slight increase in intake at the meal in the exercise session demonstrated some energy compensation (19.6%), which was significantly better (p < 0.03) than that in the sedentary group. No differences in macronutrient intake at the meal were found between the sessions. Over the day following the sessions, both groups reported a significant increase in energy intake after the exercise session as compared to the control session (1457.5 + 646.2 kcals vs. 1356.1 + 657.2 kcals, p < 0.04), with no difference in macronutrient intake between the sessions.
These results indicate that, although complete acute compensation did not occur, the habitually active group acutely compensated intake significantly more so than the sedentary group, demonstrating better energy regulation ability.
Jokisch, Emily N., "The Effects of Exercise on Acute Energy Balance and Macronutrient Intake. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2010.