Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Engineering Science

Major Professor

Richard D. Komistek

Committee Members

Mohamed R. Mahfouz, William R. Hamel


The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a computational model designed to input in vivo kinematic and predict in vivo forces and torques for the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in normal, rotator cuff-deficient (RCD), reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) shoulder subjects. Twenty subjects, divided evenly amongst the four shoulder types, performed a box-lift activity while under fluoroscopic surveillance. Three dimensional (3D) in vivo kinematics was determined for the subjects using implant models and bone models created from CT (computed tomography) scans in a 2D-to-3D registration process. The kinematics were used as input for an inverse dynamics mathematical model, and the subject-specific kinetics were derived. Average resultant shoulder forces were 78.3N (range: 70.4N to 117N, SD: 5.213), 102N (range: 90.2N to 180.2N, SD: 12.339), 94.9N (range: 84.9N to 149N, SD: 10.02), and 92.5N (range: 87.984N to 95.370N, SD: 1.848), for normal, RCD, RSA, and TSA subjects, respectively. Average resultant shoulder torques were 23.6Nm (range: 8.32Nm to 73.7Nm, SD: 11.227), 29.6Nm (range: 22.892Nm to 71.377Nm, SD: 7.581), 27.2Nm (range: 19.961Nm to 59.352Nm, SD: 6.664), 20.3Nm (range: 11.700Nm to 31.409Nm, SD: 6.496), for normal, RCD, RSA, and TSA shoulders, respectively. This study revealed that RCD subjects exhibited a decreased ROM (range of motion) of the humeral head with respect to the glenoid, as compared to the other groups. This study also showed that subjects having a rotator cuff-deficient shoulder and/or a replaced shoulder tend to use compensatory motions to perform the task of lifting a box, and, as a result, they experience greater forces at the glenohumeral joint. Paradoxically, the RCD subjects experienced the highest joint forces and torques among the different shoulder types.

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