Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



Major Professor

Hollie A. Raynor

Committee Members

Melissa B. Hansen-Petrik, Hillary N. Fouts


Background: The relationship between 100% fruit juice intake and adiposity in children may be a consequence of lack of complete compensation to energy consumed from beverages. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of beverage type and beverage size on beverage and overall snack intake in preschool-aged children. Methods: Using a 2x2x2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type [100% fruit juice vs. water] and beverage size [6 oz. vs. 12 oz.]), 26 children (3.9 + 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed 20-minute snack sessions on four consecutive Wednesday afternoons. All snacks consisted of 200 g of applesauce, approximately 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. or 12 oz. of 100% berry fruit juice or water. Results: Repeated measures analyses of covariance found a significant effect of beverage size on grams of beverage consumed (121.3 + 59.9 g consumed in 6 oz. conditions versus 173.9 + 101.7 g in 12 oz. conditions, p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) interaction of beverage type and beverage size was found for calories of beverage consumed, in which more calories were consumed from the beverage in the 12 oz. juice condition than any other condition (12 oz. juice = 109.5 + 56.2 kcal; 6 oz. juice = 69.4 + 26.4; 6 oz. and 12 oz. water = 0.0 + 0.0 kcal). No significant difference was observed for total snack energy intake or for energy consumed from applesauce and graham crackers between conditions. However, total caloric intake was approximately 67% higher when juice was served with the snack (d = 1.05). Conclusion: Serving children larger beverage portions can lead to increased beverage intake during snack time, and leads to increased beverage energy intake if the beverage contains calories. Overall snack energy intake is also elevated when a caloric beverage is served because children do not appear to exhibit compensation to liquid calories during a snack. Therefore, consuming a caloric beverage alongside a snack may not be the best option if excessive energy intake is of concern.

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