Date of Award
Master of Science
Hollie A. Raynor
Melissa Hansen-Petrik, Lauren Gellar
Background: To better understand what dietary changes enhance consumption of a low-Calorie, low-fat diet and improve weight loss, this secondary data analysis examined relationships between changes from 0 to 6 and 6 to 18 months in food group intake and reductions in energy and energy from fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention in 162 participants.
Methods: Participants were aged 52.5 ± 8.4 years, predominantly white (92%), female (57.4%), with some college education (88.9%), married (76.5%), and not Hispanic (97.5%), with a body mass index (BMI) of 34.9 + 4.5 kg/m2. Anthropometric and physical activity measurements and three, telephone, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at 0, 6, and 18 months. Food group servings consumed were determined from NDSR Food Guide Pyramid food group codings. Hierarchical regressions examined relationships between changes in food group intake and changes in energy and percent energy from fat intake and weight from 0 to 6 months (weight loss) and 6 to 18 months (weight loss maintenance).
Results: Food group intake changes with significant positive (p < 0.05) associations to energy and percent energy from fat intake changes from 0 to 6 months were: Higher Fat Oils, Higher Fat Meat, Higher Fat Fats, and Modified Regular Fat Dairy. Food group intake changes with significant (p < 0.05) associations to weight changes from 0 to 6 months were: Sugar Sweetened Sweets and Modified Lower Fat Sugar Sweetened Fats Oils and Sweets (positive relationship), and Lower Fat Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Lower Fat Unsweetened Beverages (negative relationship). Food group intake changes with significant (p < 0.05) positive associations to energy and percent energy from fat intake changes from 6 to 18 months were Higher Fat Nuts, Higher Fat Fats, and Modified Regular Fat Dairy.
Conclusion: Changes in food group intake associated with reducing energy, percent energy from fat, and weight were decreases in servings consumed from higher fat and sugar sweetened food groups and increases in artificially sweetened and unsweetened beverages. Future research should examine if providing goals for these food groups within the context of a low-Calorie, low-fat dietary prescription enhances outcomes.
Keshani, Vaishali Deepak, "Relationship Between Dietary Choices Made during a Low-Calorie, Low-fat Diet and Changes in Caloric Intake, Caloric Intake from Fat, and Weight Loss. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2014.