Masters Theses

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts



Major Professor

Walter E. Klippel

Committee Members

Paul W. Parmalee, Charles Faulkner


This study examines chronological and spatial changes in the distribution of modified bone attributes. Five hundred sixty-two modified bone specimens were examined from Late Archaic, Early Woodland, and Middle/Late Woodland contexts of the Widows Creek site. Each specimen was examined for raw material, manufacturing traces, manufacturing stage, and morphology. The Widows Creek material was then compared to material from Russell Cave (1JA181) and Westmoreland-Barber (40MI11) using published data.

The study found that, at a general level, raw material choice varied little through time. However, distinct differences in the distribution of materials in manufacturing stages and morphological categories are present. Manufacturing stage data shows an increase in the manufacture of certain items including fishhooks and bipointed objects in the Middle Late Woodland period. Differences in settlement pattern and site function are observed when the three sites are compared.

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