Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Educational Psychology and Research

Major Professor

Ralph Brockett

Committee Members

Katherine Greenberg, Tricia Redeker Hepner, John Lounsbury


The purpose of this study was to design a valid and reliable instrument that contains original scales measuring learning resistance behaviors and cognitions, along with four other hypothetically related factors, resentment, disinterest, overconfidence, and perceived social norms. This process entailed constructing valid items for each of the five included scales; testing those scales for reliability using internal consistency analysis; and validating those scales using external criteria. The multiple scales were tested for intra-correlations to support or disconfirm a series of hypotheses reflecting the hypothetical relationships between learning resistance and the other four included factors. The resultant instrument contains five reliable scales, and the Openness Scale shows a strong negative correlation with the resistance scale, providing some criterion-related validity. Very strong positive correlations exist between all included scales, which suggest the need to provide additional indicators of discriminant validity in future validation studies on this instrument.

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