Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School Psychology

Major Professor

Merilee McCurdy

Committee Members

Tara Moore, Robert Richardson, Laura Wheat


This study examined the Writing Self-Efficacy Scale (WSES) and the Daly-Miller Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) as measures of writing self-efficacy and apprehension for middle school students. The purpose of this study was to expand on previous research regarding the reliability and validity of both the WSES and WAT to account for changes in student profiles as well as writing expectations throughout the years. The goal of this study was to evaluate current reliability and validity of the WSES and WAT to determine whether they remain appropriate measures for writing self-efficacy and apprehension. Data were collected from were examined for 65 children between the ages of 11 and 14 enrolled in a Boys & Girls Club in the Southeastern United States. The internal consistency of WSES and WAT test items were examined using Cronbach’s Alpha, yielding coefficients of 0.7 and .75, respectively. Relationships between WSES scores, WAT scores, and Total Words Written (TWW) were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients as well as a multiple aggression analysis. Correlations indicate a statistically significant, moderate positive correlation between WSES scores and TWW (r = .30), and a statistically significant, moderate positive correlation between WAT scores and TWW (r = .33). Results from the multiple regression model indicate that when used together, WSES and WAT scores could reliably predict writing performance as well as when used together with gender. Results provide current evidence of a significant relationships between writing self-efficacy and performance as well as writing apprehension and performance. Limitations and implications are discussed.

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