Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

Patricia Davis-Wiley


Technology for the English language learning classroom offers both benefits and challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of ESL and Bilingual Education teachers, from four school districts, in a large Midwestern region of the United States, concerning the current state of technology for educational purposes; their innovativeness in the strategies they employ in integrating technology in their classrooms; and how they negotiate their instructional needs with what resources they have at their disposal. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following research questions: 1. What type and level of technology do ESL and BE teachers use in their classrooms? 2. How do ESL and BE teachers use technology in their classrooms? a. How do they perceive that technology meets their instructional needs? b. How do their experiences and instructional goals affect their perceptions? 3.What strategies do ESL and BE teachers employ for integrating technology into instruction? a. How have teachers altered or tailored technologies to meet the needs of their specific classes and students? b. How can technology better meet the instructional needs of ESL and BE teachers? The study, using a modified Delphi approach, consisted of two rounds. Findings from the present research revealed that resources for teachers varied even within the same district. The panel of experts reported that the availability of technological resources and an Instructional Technology department (or lack thereof) affected their perceptions of technology integration. Essentially, teachers in this study desired more working computers, more time to learn how to use software programs, and assistance in using and maintaining the programs and computers.The subjects listed student engagement and enjoyment as a benefit, but viewed the challenges of technology integration enough to resist largely incorporating it in their instruction. The increased use of technology outside the classroom and possible advantages it offers teachers and students, must be tempered with what resources teachers have available to them through the availability of time, effective training, and district funding. Pedagogical factors and economic considerations can serve as guidelines for teachers and administrators who plan on adopting (more) technology resources in their schools.

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