Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Comparative and Experimental Medicine

Major Professor

Agricola Odoi

Committee Members

Stephen Kania, Russell Zaretzki, Robert Donnell


The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria has become a serious public health concern. The use of antimicrobials for prophylaxis make it important to estimate the magnitude of the problem in the animal population. The aim of the second chapter in this study is to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. The proportion of resistant isolates by animal breed, species of organism, sample source, and time period were computed. Chi-square and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to identify significant associations and temporal trends, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR).In addition to the problem of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, appropriate usage of antimicrobials is also a global public health concern where opinions regarding appropriate use vary greatly amongst veterinarians. Therefore, the objectives of the third chapter of this study are to investigate the opinions, knowledge and perceptions of veterinarians in Kentucky regarding AMR and antimicrobial prescription practices as well as to identify predictors of their knowledge and opinions. This cross-sectional study uses a 30-question survey questionnaire administered to members of the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association (KVMA). The proportion of responses to survey questions and 95% confidence intervals were computed. Predictors of improper use of antimicrobials and antimicrobial prescription practices of the respondents as well as their colleagues were investigated using multinomial logistic regression models.The appropriate usage of antimicrobials is also an important topic in developing countries such as South Africa. Thus, the fourth chapter in this study investigates the knowledge, prescription practices and attitudes towards AMR among veterinarians in the City of Tshwane, Metropolitan Municipality. A 30-question survey was administered and the percentages of responses to survey questions and their 95% confidence intervals will be computed. Ordinary logistic models are used to investigate predictors of knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial prescription practices of respondents. Predictors of antimicrobial prescription practices of respondents’ colleagues are identified using multinomial logistic models.


Portions of this document were previously published in the BMC Veterinary Research Journal in 2018.

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