Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Robert H. Kirk
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the life satisfaction and self-concept of the elderly living in congregate housing versus those living in non-congregate housing in Knox County, Tennessee. Two instruments (Life Satisfaction Index-Z and The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale) were used to measure life satisfaction and self-concept of elderly living in the two different settings. A demographic data form was also used to capture information regarding the study participants. A stratified random sample of elderly was obtained from the 65 census tracts in Knox County. The study groups consisted of 235 elderly men and women living in congregate (N=208) and non-congregate (N=27) housing in Knox County, Tennessee. This study is a modified replication of the study conducted by Griffin in 1982 in Knox County, Tennessee. This study used the same sampling formula and census tracts, as well as some of the same congregate housing facilities as the previous study. The present study used six interviewers to collect data whereas the earlier investigation was conducted by direct interviews by the researcher. Also, a workshop was conducted for training purposes for the interviewers. Lastly, a sample of residents of an assisted living facility was included in this study for congregate housing. Statistical analysis was conducted using marginal statistics, Analysis of Variances, multiple comparisons, and Multiple Analysis of Variances. A T-test was performed to measure and compare life satisfaction of elderly in congregate and noncongregate settings. Analysis of Variances were used to determine if life satisfaction differed by gender, race, income and household size. A Multiple Analysis of Variance vm was used to determine if there was a difference in self-concept of elderly in congregate and non-congregate settings. Individual ANOVAs were also calculated to ascertain which of the self-concept subscales differed. Based on the study' s findings, the following conclusions were made as they relate specifically to the four hypotheses: 1. There is no significant difference in life satisfaction of elderly residing in congregate and non-congregate housing in Knox County, Tennessee. 2. There is a significant difference in life satisfaction of elderly based on income, but not on race, gender or household size in Knox County, Tennessee. 3. Elderly living in non-congregate housing had a higher level of self-concept of family than elderly living in congregate housing. 4. Self-Concept Subscales differed among elderly and are as follows: a. Self-Criticism Self-Concept: Household size was significant with elderly having a higher level of self-concept as the household size increases. b. Physical Self-Concept: (1.) Elderly living with more than two other people had a statistically significant higher mean; (2.) Whites had a higher level of self-concept than blacks; and females had a higher self-concept than males. c. Moral Self-Concept: Whites had a significantly higher level of self-concept than blacks; females had a higher level of self-concept than males; and those elderly with lower incomes had a higher level of self-concept than those with higher incomes. d. Personal Self-Concept: No significant differences were observed. IX e. Family Self-Concept: Whites had a higher level of self-concept than blacks; and elderly with lower incomes had a higher level of self-concept than those with higher incomes. f. Social Self-Concept: Whites had a higher level of self-concept than blacks; and females had a higher level of self-concept than males.
Canada, Barbara Joyce, "Life satisfaction and self-concept of elderly living in congregate and non-congregate housing in Knox County, Tennessee. " PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 2003.