Date of Award
Doctor of Education
Patricia A. Beitel
Craig A. Wrisberg, Ralph E. Jones, Mark A. Hector
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of augmented attentional focus on the performance with practice, of a closed perceptual-motor task for individuals who differ in task mastery. Sixty-four male volunteers were assigned to either the beginning or advanced task mastery group (n = 32) based on bowling averages (≤ 130, ≥ 150 respectively). Each subject in the task mastery groups was randomly assigned to one of four augmented focus of attention conditions, i.e., focus on: (a) environmental results of the movement that was performed (KR); (b) the movement that was performed (KP); (c) self via presence of VTR camera and monitor (VTR); or (d) nothing by experimental manipulation (control). The hypotheses tested the theoretical projections of Gentile (1972) and Fleishman and Rich (1963), i.e., (a) for beginning bowlers the augmented attention to KR group would perform better than the KP, VTR, or control groups, and (b) for advanced bowlers the augmented attention to KP and/or VTR groups would perform better than the KR or control groups. Each subject rolled 30 balls at a full ten-pin set-up. The pinfall and distance from target scores were averaged and grouped into six blocks of five trials each.
For both levels of task mastery, an a priori test of planned comparisons and an analysis of variance for the split plot factorial (4.6) were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that: (a) the bowling accuracy of beginning bowlers who received an augmented attentional focus to KR was significantly better ( p_ ≤ .004) than that of the beginning control group with no other group differences; (b) the distance from target scores of the advanced bowlers who received an augmented attentional focus to KP were more accurate ( p_ = .038) than those of the KR focus or advanced control group; (c) there were no significant ( p_ ≤ .03) main effects for pinfall between group factors at either level of task mastery; and (d) there were no significant ( p_ ≤ .05) main or interaction effects for within group factors at either level of task mastery. In conclusion, the results of the study partially supported the theoretical projections of Gentile (1972) and Fleishman and Rich (1963).
Richards, John Allen, "The Effects of Augmented Attentional Focus on the Performance with Practice of a Closed Perceptual-Motor Task for Individuals Who Differ in Task Mastery. " PhD diss., University of Tennessee, 1984.