Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Teacher Education

Major Professor

Richard L. Allington

Committee Members

Anne McGill-Franzen, Stergios G. Botzakis, Gary J. Skolits, Timothy Rasinski


Response to Intervention is a policy that has been implemented across the country to reduce the number of students incorrectly identified Specific Learning Disabled (SLD), and to enhance the educational outcomes for all students. While most states provide guidelines or frameworks for implementation, there generally is not much provided for individual states and districts regarding how to implement RTI in their schools. With implementation happening at the secondary level and most secondary educators not having a literacy background, there is a need to find out more regarding teachers’ perceptions. This mixed-methods sequential design exploration study first used a national survey with three hundred and three participants and then follow-up interviews with nine participants chosen by regional division. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ perceptions regarding the RTI policy, as well as how they viewed their confidence and confidence in their school regarding teaching literacy strategies and interventions at the secondary level. Specifically, the data were used to compare the teachers’ own confidence in implementing required literacy strategies and instruction to how the teachers perceive the overall school’s success at implementing RTI. Additionally, teachers were asked about their perception on training provided. Through quantitative analysis and qualitative coding, three main ideas were identified through the data: need for quality professional development, need for strong administrative support, and need for additional resources, for successful implementation of RTI in their schools.

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