Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Retail, Hospitality, and Tourism Management

Major Professor

Youn-Kyung Kim

Committee Members

Ann E. Fairhurst, Sejin Ha, Robert T. Ladd, Kiwon Lee


As a form of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), online consumer reviews have attracted increased attention from marketing researchers and practitioners. Given the importance of consumer online reviews in the tourism and apparel industries, the current study examined how contextual factor (temporal distance of consumption) and personal factor (chronic temporal orientation) moderate the effects of regulatory-focused online reviews on consumers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses. Three web-based experiments were conducted to investigate the conceptual model using athletic shoes (Study1) and hotel (Study 2 and 3).

Study 1 showed that participants rated prevention-focused consumer reviews more favorably than promotion-focused consumer reviews when the purchase was temporally proximal. However, their attitudes toward consumer reviews were not significantly different when the purchase was temporally distant. Study 2 found that participants showed more favorable review attitude, brand attitude, and purchase intention when they read promotion-focused consumer reviews than prevention-focused consumer review under the temporally distant consumption. However, the differences between two types of reviews were not significant under the temporally consumption. Furthermore, review relevance fully mediated the effects of the interaction on dependent variables. The results of Study 3 indicated that future-oriented consumers showed more favorable review attitude, brand attitude, and a greater purchase intention when they read promotion-focused consumer reviews than when they read prevention-focused consumer reviews. On the other hand, the present-oriented consumers indicated more favorable brand attitude and a greater purchase intention after reading prevention-focused consumer reviews than after reading promotion-focused consumer reviews. Notably, the results of Study 3 demonstrated that regulatory fit fully mediated the interaction effects on dependent variables.

This study will make several theoretical contributions to the literature on regulatory focus theory, construal level theory, and regulatory fit theory by providing empirical evidence of theoretical explanations within the context of online consumer reviews. The findings of the current study will also offer new guidelines for marketers in e-tourism and the apparel industry to segment their target audiences and revamp their product review platforms to suit consumer orientation.

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