Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School Psychology

Major Professor

Christopher Skinner

Committee Members

Dennis Ciancio, Amy Skinner, John Malone


There is a need for effective and efficient reading interventions in American schools. Two empirically supported reading interventions are Repeated Readings and Listening While Reading. Previous researchers have evaluated the effects of these interventions individually on reading fluency and comprehension, and in comparison on students’ reading fluency. This is the first study to compare the relative effectiveness of each intervention on students’ comprehension, which is the typical purpose of reading. The current study extends previous research by considering the instructional time required to complete each intervention, and converting students’ comprehension accuracy scores into a comprehension rate measure. Additionally, students read two passages for each reading condition, one slightly below an instructional level and one at a frustrational level, to determine if an interaction exists between passage difficulty and intervention condition. Results revealed no main effect for reading condition on students’ comprehension accuracy scores. However, analysis of comprehension rate scores revealed a significant main effect for reading condition as well as a significant interaction effect between reading condition and passage difficulty. Listening While Reading resulted in significantly greater comprehension per minute of instructional time than Repeated Reading or the control condition. While both interventions appeared equally effective when examining overall comprehension of a passage, results suggest that Listening While Reading is a significantly more efficient intervention for targeting comprehension. This was found across both levels of passage difficulty. Implications for measurement, intervention selection, and academic accommodations are discussed.

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