Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Plant Sciences

Major Professor

Fred Allen

Committee Members

Patrick Keyser, Donald Tyler, Adam Taylor


As use of second-generation biofuel crops increases, so do questions about sustainability, particularly their potential to affect fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Nitrogen (N)-fixing legumes interseeded into switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) may be an alternative to inorganic fertilizer in forage-feedstock systems. Research herein is divided into four general experiments: I). N replacement and feedstock impacts from legume intercrops and biochar in switchgrass; II). N-fixation rates in intercrop systems; III). impacts of biofuel systems under enhanced climate change; and, IV). projected sustainability of regional switchgrass production. Approaches included: characterization of feedstock/forage quality traits based on legume, biochar and synthetic-N applications, and harvest timing; quantification of nitrogenease activity in legumes via two techniques (15N [isotopic] enrichment and N-difference); and, determine impacts from regional switchgrass production, N-input sensitivities, and legume-intercropping via life cycle assessment (LCA). Results suggest pigeon pea, sun hemp, red clover, and partridge pea intercrops, and in some instances, biochar may supply analogous-N to that of synthetic fertilizers to Panicum species. Specifically, selected legume fixation may exceed recommended inorganic-N levels (67 kg [kilogram] N ha-1 [hectare]) in both temperate humid and semiarid tropical pasture/feedstock systems. N-difference method may be used to measure biological fixation, as it estimated comparable fixation rates to that of benchmark 15N enrichment values. Furthermore, harvest timing can be manipulated to obtain desired feedstock traits. Specifically, overwintering harvests minimized phosphorus and potassium removal, and maximize ethanol yield, hemicellulose, and in field dry-down [10.84 vs. 24.81% (P≤0.05)]. However, yield losses were observed (22%). Forage yields were generally more responsive to legumes, and legume intercropping may increase switchgrass forage quality (P-1rate. Intercropping selected legumes in switchgrass may enhance forage/feedstock quality and yield while reducing non-renewable inputs and greenhouse gas emissions.

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