Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

R. Steve McCallum

Committee Members

Sherry Mee Bell, Sherry K. Bain, John W. Lounsbury


The Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment Profile (TOD-RAP), designed as a group-administered instrument for the purpose of identifying persons at-risk for reading difficulties, was administered to 357 primary/secondary and collegiate summer school students in a southeastern state, along with the Reading Fluency subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III), the Spelling and Reading portions of the Wide Range Achievement Test 3 (WRAT-3), and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF). Internal consistency coefficients of TOD-RAP subtests ranged from .79 to .96 and test-retest coefficients ranged from .70 to .94, indicating adequate reliability. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) yielded significant differences between non at-risk and at-risk students at the primary/secondary and collegiate level (F = 2.45, p < .05; F = 8.44, p < .001, respectively). Based on post hoc pairwise comparisons, non at-risk primary/secondary students, as compared to primary/secondary at-risk students, performed significantly better on three of the six TOD-RAP subtests. The non at-risk college group, as compared to at-risk college students, earned significantly higher scores on four of the five TOD-RAP subtests. These results suggest that TOD-RAP subtests may provide a valid means for identifying students at-risk for reading difficulties. Based on multiple regression analyses for the primary/secondary age group, TOD-RAP subtests significantly predicted all four operationalizations of reading achievement (WJ-III Reading Fluency, WRAT-3 Reading, WRAT-3 Spelling, and TOSWRF scores). Of the three TOD-RAP subtests, Spelling appeared as the most consistent predictor, accounting for unique variance for all four operationalizations of the criterion measure. Four of the five TOD-RAP subtests significantly predicted WJ-III Reading Fluency scores at the college level. These analyses provide evidence for the predictive utility of the TOD-RAP at both the collegiate and primary/secondary level. Although promising, further research must be conducted before this instrument can be used to identify students at-risk for reading difficulties.

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