Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

R. Steve McCallum

Committee Members

Sherry Mee Bell, Sherry K. Bain, John W. Lounsbury


The Test of Dyslexia-Rapid Assessment Profile (TOD-RAP), designed as a group-administered instrument for the purpose of identifying persons at-risk for reading difficulties, was administered to 357 primary/secondary and collegiate summer school students in a southeastern state, along with the Reading Fluency subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III), the Spelling and Reading portions of the Wide Range Achievement Test 3 (WRAT-3), and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF). Internal consistency coefficients of TOD-RAP subtests ranged from .79 to .96 and test-retest coefficients ranged from .70 to .94, indicating adequate reliability. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) yielded significant differences between non at-risk and at-risk students at the primary/secondary and collegiate level (F = 2.45, p < .05; F = 8.44, p < .001, respectively). Based on post hoc pairwise comparisons, non at-risk primary/secondary students, as compared to primary/secondary at-risk students, performed significantly better on three of the six TOD-RAP subtests. The non at-risk college group, as compared to at-risk college students, earned significantly higher scores on four of the five TOD-RAP subtests. These results suggest that TOD-RAP subtests may provide a valid means for identifying students at-risk for reading difficulties. Based on multiple regression analyses for the primary/secondary age group, TOD-RAP subtests significantly predicted all four operationalizations of reading achievement (WJ-III Reading Fluency, WRAT-3 Reading, WRAT-3 Spelling, and TOSWRF scores). Of the three TOD-RAP subtests, Spelling appeared as the most consistent predictor, accounting for unique variance for all four operationalizations of the criterion measure. Four of the five TOD-RAP subtests significantly predicted WJ-III Reading Fluency scores at the college level. These analyses provide evidence for the predictive utility of the TOD-RAP at both the collegiate and primary/secondary level. Although promising, further research must be conducted before this instrument can be used to identify students at-risk for reading difficulties.

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