Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Social Work

Major Professor

William R. Nugent

Committee Members

John S. Wodarski, Cynthia Rocha, Shawn Spurgeon


The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate relationships between gender and race as it pertains to communication with parents about substance abuse and attitudes about substance abuse, using Teams-Games-Tournaments as an intervention. The scope of the substance abuse problem, adolescent communication and attitudes regarding substance abuse literature, attachment theory, and Teams-Games-Tournaments intervention literature are reviewed. Secondary data was used with a repeated measures design, with 159 subjects at baseline, 112 at exit, and 99 at follow-up. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Hierarchical Linear Modeling were used for analysis. Findings suggest that gender and race are not significant factors in pre-test scores nor rates of change in adolescent substance abuse communication and attitude using Teams-Games-Tournaments as an intervention.

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