Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

Leslee A. Fisher

Committee Members

Craig A. Wrisberg, Christopher H. Skinner, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother


A multiple-baseline across-subjects design was used to test the efficacy of solution-focused guided imagery (SFGI) with four yip-affected golfers (X = 51 years of age) and an average of 33 years playing experience. Yips are defined as jerks, tremors, or a freezing of the putting stroke and in the least can add several strokes per round of golf (Smith et al., 2003). Existing research suggests that the yips are a task-specific dystonia that is prompted and/or exacerbated by psychological factors (e.g., anxiety). Each golfer in this study participated in at least five SFGI sessions, designed to guide the individual to create vivid images of themselves thinking, feeling, and behaving in ways devoid of their problem. Visual analysis of the data revealed an immediate and sustained decrease for all participants in reducing the number of yips and the percentage of yips within 5 feet between baseline and intervention phases. Maintenance data also revealed no instances of the yips.

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