Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



Major Professor

Mary Gunther

Committee Members

Sandy Mixer, JoAnne Hall, Gregory Button


The need for end-of-life care research is exemplified by the fact that the National Institutes of Health has made this topic a research priority. End-of-life care is multifaceted and concepts become complex when cultural perspectives are considered. The purpose of this qualitative ethnonursing study was to discover culture care expressions, meanings, patterns, and practices at end-of-life among Yup’ik Eskimo in community settings. Data was obtained from Yup’ik Eskimo of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory and the ethnonursing research method directed this study. Key and general informants were interviewed. Interviews and observations were analyzed. The following three themes supported by the recurrent care patterns and key and general informant descriptors are (a) care is uptete (to get ready to go), (b) care is ilakellriit (community and family), and (c) professional care is to do. Nurses providing end-of-life care to Yup’ik Eskimo need to know what is important, fulfilling, useful, and meaningful as described within a cultural context by the Yup’ik Eskimo in order to promote culturally congruent care. Findings of this study will be useful to the nurses and all other healthcare providers who care for Yup’ik Eskimo. This study further supports and substantiates the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality and contributes to the body of transcultural nursing knowledge.

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Included in

Nursing Commons