Doctoral Dissertations

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Chemical Engineering

Major Professor

Duane D. Bruns

Committee Members

Robert M. Counce, C. Stuart Daw, Ke Nguyen, Charles E A Finney, Tsewei Wang


Important global hydrodynamic relationships for shallow spouted beds of high-density particles were characterized in terms of three features: minimum spouting velocity, overall bed pressure drop at minimum spouting velocity; and fountain height. Spouted bed literature is sparse for shallow beds (static particle depth to bed diameter ≤ 1) and beds with heavy particles (density > 3000 kg/m3). Correlations for such beds were developed here by varying column diameter, static bed height, particle diameter, particle density, gas density and gas flow in an ambient temperature and pressure bed.

The degree of correlation between each of the observed hydrodynamic features and a set of selected dimensionless groups from the literature was evaluated with principal components analysis. The minimum spouting velocity correlated strongly with the ratios of particle to bed diameter, of particle to gas density, and of static bed height to particle diameter, and weakly with Archimedes number. Overall bed pressure drop at minimum spouting correlated strongly with Archimedes number, the ratio of static bed height to particle diameter and Froude number. Fountain height correlated strongly with the ratios of the superficial gas velocity to minimum spouting velocity, of static bed height to particle diameter and of the particle to the bed diameter. Principal component regression models were developed for minimum spouting velocity, bed pressure drop, and fountain height with respect to a selected set of dimensionless parameters. All models have regression coefficient values exceeding 85%. Predictions using models developed in this study were compared with correlations in the literature and found to give better results for the experimental conditions studied. Most likely the literature models were less accurate because they were extrapolated.

Distinct bed pressure drop relationships with gas flow were observed for certain ranges of particle diameter and static bed height. In addition three dynamical spouting modes were observed, and named as regular, erratic and bimodal. A spouting regime map is proposed based on the spouting regimes defined in this investigation. The correspondence between bed pressure drop relationships and spouting regimes is still unclear.

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