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Astaxanthin, the “king of carotenoids” has been widely used as an animal feed additive for several decades, mainly in the aquaculture industry. Recent studies have led to its emergence as a potent antioxidant available for human consumption. Traditionally it has been chemically synthesized, but the recent market interest has generated interests in producing it naturally via yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) fermentation, or algal (Haematococcus pluvialis) induction. This work aims to compare these production processes and their impact on the economical, environmental, and societal scale. We also look at the attempts of increasing production yields by altering various parameters during all three production processes. Ultimately, the decision of sustainable practices in producing carotenoids like astaxanthin involves sacrificing yield/potency for a greener product life cycle.

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