Landscaping - Insects & Diseases
Holly leafminers are the most injurious pests of holly in the eastern United States. The holly leafminer was introduced from Europe. This insect is a primary pest of American or Christmas holly. Injury results from the larval mining activity just under the upper leaf surface. Additional damage is caused when females repeatedly puncture the leaves with their ovipositor (egg-laying structure). Punctured leaves become deformed.
"SP290-T-Holly Leafminers," The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service, 04-0009-SP290T-1M-9/03(Rev) E12-4615-00-004-04, https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_agexgard/54