Several insect species attack stored grain, resulting in both direct and indirect losses. Direct losses from insect feeding result in reduced grain weight, loss of nutrients and decreased germination. Indirectly, the presence of insects causes a deterioration and contamination of grain. This results in a poorer grade of grain and lower market value.
"SP341-A-Protect Farm-Stored Grain," The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service, SP 341-A 01/08 08-0126, https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_agexcrop/20