Teaching and Supervision in Counseling

Author ORCID Identifier

Phillip Waalkes: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2956-5078

Paul Smith: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1324-2319

Daniel Hall: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4237-4214

Author Biographies

Phillip L. Waalkes, Ph.D., NCC, ACS, is an assistant professor at the University of Missouri–St. Louis. His research interests include school counselors’ growth and development, teaching in counselor education, research mentorship, and qualitative research methods.

Paul H. Smith, Ph.D., LPC, ACS, NCC, is an assistant professor at the University of North Georgia. His research interests include grief and loss, transnational issues in the profession, humanistic counseling, and teaching in counselor education.

Daniel Hall, Ph.D., LPC, is an associate professor and the counselor education program director at the University of Lynchburg in Lynchburg, Virginia. His research interests include andragogic development, creativity, experiential counseling and teaching philosophy, and technology in education and counseling.




Counselor education programs can help support doctoral students in developing teaching philosophies. Yet, limited guidance exists about how counselor educators can help doctoral students integrate andragogies into their teaching philosophy statements. Overlooking andragogy may impede educators from deepening their philosophical beliefs and teaching with authenticity and intentionality. Therefore, we offer the Intentional Andragogy Model (IAM), a process-oriented reimagining of Halbur and Halbur’s Intentional Theory Selection model (ITSM). Counselor educators-in-training can follow this scaffolded step-by-step process to write teaching philosophy statements rooted in their life philosophies and their unique contexts. This model can help counselor educators-in-training root their teaching philosophy statements in andragogy and link andragogy and teaching practice. To illustrate this model, we present a step-by-step case example of how counselor educators can implement the IAM in a doctoral teaching course. We also present considerations for implementation of this model.

Public Significance Statement

The Intentional Andragogy Selection Model described in this article is a structured process for counselor educators and counselor educators-in-training to develop teaching philosophies infused with andragogy and awareness of individual and systemic contexts. This intentional and reflexive model aids in writing teaching philosophy statements that integrate andragogy with practice, connecting teaching with knowledge and experiences, making teaching more relevant and motivating for learners, and developing metacognitive skills.