Themes of powerlessness, power, and paradox predominate in this reflection on more than 15 years of research on women's anger. Studies conducted in the United States, France, and Turkey are highlighted. These studies have negated several myths while illuminating the general rationality of women's anger: It is squarely grounded in interpersonal interactions in which people deny women power or resources, treat them unjustly, or behave irresponsibly toward them. The offenders are not strangers; rather they are their closest intimates. But few women learned healthy anger expression while growing up. Anger is a confusing and distressing emotion for women, intermingled with hurt and pain. Its complexity requires greater attention by researchers, with regard to health-promoting interventions and to cultural differences, because anger in non-Western cultures has seldom been explored.
Thomas, S.P. (2005). Women’s anger, aggression, and violence. Health Care for Women International, 26, 504-522.