Date of Award

12-1980

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

Major

Anthropology

Major Professor

Paul W. Parmalee

Committee Members

John Guilday, Gerald Schroedl, Walter E. Klippel, David A. Etnier

Abstract

This study examines the late Mississippian Dallas Focus and historic Overhill Cherokee occupations at the archaeological site of Toqua (4OMR6), Monroe County, Tennessee. The faunal remains from the Dallas occupation were subdivided according to two mounds and four village areas to test propositions relevant to the patterning of faunal remains from a chiefdom level society. These propositions were generated from the archaeological correlates of chiefdoms proposed by Peebles and Kuss. The distribution of faunal remains were examined from the floors of two domestic and one special function structures, and it was possible to establish regular patterns of refuse accumulation. The distribution of deer and bear elements revealed a selection of the front leg and to a lesser extent the hind leg by the high status occupants. The bird, turtle and fish remains, especially those from structure floor fill, point toward a restricted access to certain species and high status food preferences.

The historic Overhill Cherokee faunal sample is composed of a midden accumulation from the north side of Mound A (Zone B) and features in the East Village Area. This well preserved sample compares favorably with faunal samples of a similar time period reported from Chota (4OMR2) and Citico (4OMR7). The butchering pattern for the three Cherokee samples are comparable and the Overhill Cherokee pattern for partitioning animals corresponded to the Dallas pattern. The Cherokee and Dallas faunal utilization patterns correspond very closely in species utilized for food and those animals used in ceremonial or medicinal contexts. The use of freshwater mollusks continued into the historic period.

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