Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are rare with an incidence of 0.1% in large angiographic series. The majority are atherosclerotic in origin. Other causes include connective tissue disorders, trauma, vasculitis, congenital, mycotic and idiopathic. The primary complication is myocardial ischemia or infarction, with rupture being rare. Treatment options include anticoagulation, custom made covered stents, reconstruction, resection, and exclusion with bypass.
A 66 year-old man was referred for evaluation of a 2 × 2 centimeter saccular aneurysm originating from the distal left main coronary artery. There was associated calcification and mild stenosis of the LM. The workup was prompted by a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction suffered following a laparotomy for a ruptured appendix. The past medical history was pertinent for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and a left carotid endarterectomy.
Cardiopulmonary bypass with hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest was utilized. The aneurysm was exposed in the atrioventricular groove. The aneurysm was resected and oversewn. Calcification precluded patch angioplasty. The patient then underwent coronary bypass grafting with the left internal thoracic artery placed to the left anterior descending artery and a reversed greater saphenous vein graft to an obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex artery. The postoperative course was uneventful and discharge to home occurred on the fourth postoperative day. Surgical pathology confirmed an atheromatous coronary artery aneurysm.
Left main coronary artery aneurysms in adult patients are predominantly atherosclerotic in origin. The clinical presentation is that of myocardial ischemia, likely from associated embolism. Rupture is rare. Operative treatment is exclusion and revascularization.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 2008, 3:1 doi:10.1186/1749-8090-3-1