Ethylene Stimulates Nutations That Are Dependent on the ETR1 Receptor
Ethylene influences a number of processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) through the action of five receptors. In this study, we used high-resolution, time-lapse imaging to examine the long-term effects of ethylene on growing, etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. These measurements revealed that ethylene stimulates nutations of the hypocotyls with an average delay in onset of over 6 h. The nutation response was constitutive in ctr1-2 mutants maintained in air, whereas ein2-1 mutants failed to nutate when treated with ethylene. Ethylene-stimulated nutations were also eliminated in etr1-7 loss-of-function mutants. Transformation of the etr1-7 mutant with a wild-type genomic ETR1 transgene rescued the nutation phenotype, further supporting a requirement for ETR1. Loss-of-function mutations in the other receptor isoforms had no effect on ethylene-stimulated nutations. However, the double ers1-2 ers2-3 and triple etr2-3 ers2-3 ein4-4 loss-of-function mutants constitutively nutated in air. These results support a model where all the receptors are involved in ethylene-stimulated nutations, but the ETR1 receptor is required and has a contrasting role from the other receptor isoforms in this nutation phenotype. Naphthylphthalamic acid eliminated ethylene-stimulated nutations but had no effect on growth inhibition caused by ethylene, pointing to a role for auxin transport in the nutation phenotype.
Brad M. Binder, Ronan C. O'Malley, Wuyi Wang, Tobias C. Zutz, and Anthony B. Bleecker Ethylene Stimulates Nutations That Are Dependent on the ETR1 Receptor Plant Physiol. 142: 1690-1700.