Trees for Tennessee Landscapes - Maintaining and Protecting
Tree decline is a general loss of vitality throughout the entire tree caused by a systemic disease or by a sequence of stressing events that causes the tree to deplete its energy reserves. Twig and branch dieback is initiated in the tree as a response to poor growing conditions, physical injury to the tree and/or pest attack. Usually a combination of physical, climatic and pest problems lead to decline and dieback of trees. The factors that contribute to this decline are the subject of this publication, as well as management practices to prevent decline.
"SP686 Dieback and Decline of Trees," The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service, SP686-13.5M-10/06 R12-4910-065-012-07 07-0076, http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_agexfores/86