Small grain crops are widely used in Tennessee for pasture, silage and hay. These crops produce high-quality forage during the fall, winter and spring. Including ryegrass will result in growth longer into the spring, while adding crimson or arrowleaf clover will decrease the amount of nitrogen that needs to be applied. All of these crops are coolseason annual plants, meaning they germinate in the fall, grow during the fall, winter and spring and then die in the late spring or early summer.
Even though these crops live for only one year, they have potential for use in several ways.
"SP434A Small Grains, Ryegrass and Clovers for Forage," The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service, SP434A-5M-6/99(Rev) E12-2015-00-270-99, http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_agexfora/3